The assumptions lead to these observations:

   We are Pleistocene beings in a post-industrial world

- pollution, greater solar radiation, new chemicals, new diseases affect our Pleistocene bodies

- we are not as active as the hunter-gatherers were; modern fitness activity is different in nature from the activity that drove human evolution. Sleep patterns, stress, mass society and technology assault our minds and bodies in ways for which we have no natural defences (the epidemics of modern non-communicable diseases are symptoms of these changes)

- for 5m years we ate fresh fruit and vegetables, fresh meat and fish and drank water; now we eat processed grains, milk and primarily manufactured, processed and treated foods. Even fresh fruit, vegetables and meat have been altered by pollution, chemicals, soil depletion and farming practices. Our physiology has had insufficient time to adapt fully to these features of the modern diet. [3]


1. The Pleistocene is a period in the Earth's biophysical history (more in the glossary)

2. The Palaeolithic is a period in human cultural history (more in the glossary)

3. For an elaboration on these observations, go to Stephen Boyden's paper


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Page up-dated 22 January 2009